# application of statistics in agriculture wikipedia

## - December 6, 2020 -

[110] The Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA) also holds a yearly summit to discuss safety.[111]. They are most often found in schools of public health, affiliated with schools of medicine, forestry, or agriculture, or as a focus of application in departments of statistics. ; Sweeney, D.J. There is not enough water to continue farming using current practices; therefore how critical water, land, and ecosystem resources are used to boost crop yields must be reconsidered. Such distinctions can often be loosely correlated with data type in computer science, in that dichotomous categorical variables may be represented with the Boolean data type, polytomous categorical variables with arbitrarily assigned integers in the integral data type, and continuous variables with the real data type involving floating point computation. A major problem lies in determining the extent that the sample chosen is actually representative. [208] Unprocessed commodities such as corn, soybeans, and cattle are generally graded to indicate quality, affecting the price the producer receives. [151], In 2010, the International Resource Panel of the United Nations Environment Programme assessed the environmental impacts of consumption and production. [212] Research became more systematic when in 1843, John Lawes and Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term agronomy field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England; some of them, such as the Park Grass Experiment, are still running. The principal tasks involved in agricultural statistics are the collection, processing, and analysis of statistical data that characterize the current status and development of agriculture and the fulfillment of production plans. A statistical error is the amount by which an observation differs from its expected value, a residual is the amount an observation differs from the value the estimator of the expected value assumes on a given sample (also called prediction). [1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. [29] Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. [9] Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe,[10] and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Further examining the data set in secondary analyses, to suggest new hypotheses for future study. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger; this means removing hedges, ditches and other areas of habitat. [137][138][139], Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers, manure, green manure, compost and minerals. [128] Crop nutrient use may also be managed using cultural techniques such as crop rotation or a fallow period. [64] In two regions of Australia, the central west coast and eastern central, early farmers cultivated yams, native millet, and bush onions, possibly in permanent settlements. ), Sato, Y. [8][9] Al-Kindi also made the earliest known use of statistical inference, while he and later Arab cryptographers developed the early statistical methods for decoding encrypted messages. Because variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically, sometimes they are grouped together as categorical variables, whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative variables, which can be either discrete or continuous, due to their numerical nature. lung cancer) are invited to participate and their exposure histories are collected. [132] The caloric demand of Earth's projected population, with current climate change predictions, can be satisfied by additional improvement of agricultural methods, expansion of agricultural areas, and a sustainability-oriented consumer mindset. The cleared land is used for growing crops for a few years until the soil becomes too infertile, and the area is abandoned. Nelder (1990)[44] described continuous counts, continuous ratios, count ratios, and categorical modes of data. ), "Agricultural Production Systems". It is used to understand measurement systems variability, control processes (as in statistical process control or SPC), for summarizing data, and to make data-driven decisions. [120], Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries. [108][109] [161] What was once considered a dry subject, taken in many fields as a degree-requirement, is now viewed enthusiastically. The probability of type I error is therefore the probability that the estimator belongs to the critical region given that null hypothesis is true (statistical significance) and the probability of type II error is the probability that the estimator doesn't belong to the critical region given that the alternative hypothesis is true. The scope of the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general. [121] Aquaculture or fish farming, the production of fish for human consumption in confined operations, is one of the fastest growing sectors of food production, growing at an average of 9% a year between 1975 and 2007. Statistics is a very useful application of mathematics for evaluating data in all activities. The final wave, which mainly saw the refinement and expansion of earlier developments, emerged from the collaborative work between Egon Pearson and Jerzy Neyman in the 1930s. [153] "On average we find that the total amount of fresh residues from agricultural and forestry production for second- generation biofuel production amounts to 3.8 billion tonnes per year between 2011 and 2050 (with an average annual growth rate of 11 per cent throughout the period analysed, accounting for higher growth during early years, 48 per cent for 2011–2020 and an average 2 per cent annual expansion after 2020). [37], Today, statistical methods are applied in all fields that involve decision making, for making accurate inferences from a collated body of data and for making decisions in the face of uncertainty based on statistical methodology. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. Genetic engineering has expanded the genes available to breeders to utilize in creating desired germlines for new crops. 2000. His work on dominant and recessive alleles, although initially largely ignored for almost 50 years, gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and breeding techniques. For instance, social policy, medical practice, and the reliability of structures like bridges all rely on the proper use of statistics. [56], Ways to avoid misuse of statistics include using proper diagrams and avoiding bias. It substituted synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, but caused increased water pollution, and often involved farm subsidies. [65][21], In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees (such as the orange) to Europe by way of Al-Andalus. [18] The method of least squares was first described by Adrien-Marie Legendre in 1805. A descriptive statistic (in the count noun sense) is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information,[48] while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics. A standard statistical procedure involves the collection of data leading to test of the relationship between two statistical data sets, or a data set and synthetic data drawn from an idealized model. The set of basic statistical skills (and skepticism) that people need to deal with information in their everyday lives properly is referred to as statistical literacy. Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Interpretation of statistical information can often involve the development of a null hypothesis which is usually (but not necessarily) that no relationship exists among variables or that no change occurred over time.[51][52]. 355–383 in. ), How does he/she know? • Proper application rates must be determined – Factors are: •Speed • Gallons/acre • Pressure •Speccifi garvtyi (GPA x speed x width)/5940=gallons/min. However, "failure to reject H0" in this case does not imply innocence, but merely that the evidence was insufficient to convict. Descriptive statistics is distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics aims to summarize a sample, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the sample of data is thought to represent. While the tools of data analysis work best on data from randomized studies, they are also applied to other kinds of data—like natural experiments and observational studies[40]—for which a statistician would use a modified, more structured estimation method (e.g., Difference in differences estimation and instrumental variables, among many others) that produce consistent estimators. Early statistical models were almost always from the class of linear models, but powerful computers, coupled with suitable numerical algorithms, caused an increased interest in nonlinear models (such as neural networks) as well as the creation of new types, such as generalized linear models and multilevel models. Probability is used in mathematical statistics to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more generally, the properties of statistical procedures. [41] Cocoa was being domesticated by the Mayo Chinchipe of the upper Amazon around 3,000 BC. [74], Subsistence farming is practiced to satisfy family or local needs alone, with little left over for transport elsewhere. But the mapping of computer science data types to statistical data types depends on which categorization of the latter is being implemented. [19] The first wave, at the turn of the century, was led by the work of Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, who transformed statistics into a rigorous mathematical discipline used for analysis, not just in science, but in industry and politics as well. [133], Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. [172], Climate change and agriculture are interrelated on a global scale. [62] The Gunditjmara and other groups developed eel farming and fish trapping systems from some 5,000 years ago. ", Anderson, D.R. This practice is used in Northeast India, Southeast Asia, and the Amazon Basin. [10], Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data,[11] or as a branch of mathematics. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". [204], National government policies can significantly change the economic marketplace for agricultural products, in the form of taxation, subsidies, tariffs and other measures. Much of this growth is happening in developing countries in Asia, with much smaller amounts of growth in Africa. [71][72], Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. [6] Thus defined, it includes arable farming, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice often excluded. The probability distribution of the statistic, though, may have unknown parameters. [221], There are many influences on the creation of agricultural policy, including consumers, agribusiness, trade lobbies and other groups. This statistics are normally very detailed and can be used to check the quality of education in the country in 2015 they show that one percent of the students were involved in irregularities and this was a continuous increase from 2010 from 0.15% 6 and actions had to be taken to deter examination irregularities. Consider independent identically distributed (IID) random variables with a given probability distribution: standard statistical inference and estimation theory defines a random sample as the random vector given by the column vector of these IID variables. This includes GHGs emitted by the use of inorganic fertilizers agro-chemical pesticides and herbicides; (GHG emissions resulting from production of these inputs are included in industrial emissions); and fossil fuel-energy inputs. Formally, a 95% confidence interval for a value is a range where, if the sampling and analysis were repeated under the same conditions (yielding a different dataset), the interval would include the true (population) value in 95% of all possible cases. [42] A case-control study is another type of observational study in which people with and without the outcome of interest (e.g. He originated the concepts of sufficiency, ancillary statistics, Fisher's linear discriminator and Fisher information. Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any bias within the sample and data collection procedures. These and other measures have cut biodiversity to very low levels on intensively farmed land. It is long known that aquifers in areas as diverse as northern China, the Upper Ganges and the western US are being depleted, and new research extends these problems to aquifers in Iran, Mexico and Saudi Arabia. data are pivoted in decision making. [144][145] Some studies also link widespread glyphosate usage to iron deficiencies in some crops, which is both a crop production and a nutritional quality concern, with potential economic and health implications. This does not imply that the probability that the true value is in the confidence interval is 95%. Scientists estimate that 75% of the growth in livestock production between 2003 and 2030 will be in confined animal feeding operations, sometimes called factory farming. Al-Khalil (717–786) wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages, which contains the first use of permutations and combinations, to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels. An example of an observational study is one that explores the association between smoking and lung cancer. [206] Since at least the 1960s, a combination of trade restrictions, exchange rate policies and subsidies have affected farmers in both the developing and the developed world. Policy programs can range from financial programs, such as subsidies, to encouraging producers to enroll in voluntary quality assurance programs. Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation). On industrialized farms, injuries frequently involve the use of agricultural machinery, and a common cause of fatal agricultural injuries in developed countries is tractor rollovers. [132], Payment for ecosystem services is a method of providing additional incentives to encourage farmers to conserve some aspects of the environment. South American average wheat yields are around 2 t/ha, African under 1 t/ha, and Egypt and Arabia up to 3.5 to 4 t/ha with irrigation. [185], Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to make farming more sustainable. In the European Union, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has issued guidelines on implementing health and safety directives in agriculture, livestock farming, horticulture, and forestry. Many statistical methods seek to minimize the residual sum of squares, and these are called "methods of least squares" in contrast to Least absolute deviations. One response involves going beyond reporting only the, Fallacy of the transposed conditional, aka. Similarly, worldwide average wheat yields have increased from less than 1 t/ha in 1900 to more than 2.5 t/ha in 1990. Various attempts have been made to produce a taxonomy of levels of measurement. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. [164] Agricultural water usage can also cause major environmental problems, including the destruction of natural wetlands, the spread of water-borne diseases, and land degradation through salinization and waterlogging, when irrigation is performed incorrectly. Another patch of land is selected and the process is repeated. (2006) Sexual selection and mate choice. [115], Important categories of food crops include cereals, legumes, forage, fruits and vegetables. [194] In particular, the production of nitrogen fertilizer can account for over half of agricultural energy usage. Statistics and the Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources have a strong bond at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Hoffmann, U., Section B: Agriculture – a key driver and a major victim of global warming, in: Lead Article, in: Chapter 1, in. [149][150], Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Hence for a good study, proper collection, analysis and interpretation of the result, it is These nutrients are major nonpoint pollutants contributing to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and pollution of groundwater, with harmful effects on human populations. Agriculture Jump to: navigation , search This page provides a clickable overview of all articles in Statistics Explained on agriculture ( click triangles to expand/hide the lists ); … Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with descriptive statistics. [43] The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands. This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil, representing 30–40 million pastoralists. Mathematical statistics includes not only the manipulation of probability distributions necessary for deriving results related to methods of estimation and inference, but also various aspects of computational statistics and the design of experiments. Study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data, Terminology and theory of inferential statistics, Statistics, estimators and pivotal quantities, Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis, Applied statistics, theoretical statistics and mathematical statistics, Statistics applied to mathematics or the arts. In principle confidence intervals can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. [19][20][21], In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Some fields of inquiry use applied statistics so extensively that they have specialized terminology. Both linear regression and non-linear regression are addressed in polynomial least squares, which also describes the variance in a prediction of the dependent variable (y axis) as a function of the independent variable (x axis) and the deviations (errors, noise, disturbances) from the estimated (fitted) curve. [175] Future climate change will probably negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries, while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative. This still leaves the question of how to obtain estimators in a given situation and carry the computation, several methods have been proposed: the method of moments, the maximum likelihood method, the least squares method and the more recent method of estimating equations. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. Working from a null hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized: Standard deviation refers to the extent to which individual observations in a sample differ from a central value, such as the sample or population mean, while Standard error refers to an estimate of difference between sample mean and population mean. Working from a null hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized: Type I errors (null hypothesis is falsely rejected giving a "false positive") and Type II errors (null hypothesis fails to be rejected and an actual relationship between populations is missed giving a "false negative"). A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets. Extensive X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts (i.e. This type of study typically uses a survey to collect observations about the area of interest and then performs statistical analysis. Shipments of (GNSS) devices in agriculture worldwide 2010-2016, by application Revenue of GNSS device sales in agriculture worldwide by application 2015-2025 Show all statistics (3) Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. [20] Pearson developed the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, defined as a product-moment,[21] the method of moments for the fitting of distributions to samples and the Pearson distribution, among many other things. [2] While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant,[3][4] termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. [142], Herbicide-resistant seed has a gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to herbicides, including glyphosate. Numerous [56][57][58][59] A system of companion planting called the Three Sisters was developed on the Great Plains. The earliest European writing on statistics dates back to 1663, with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt. The second wave of the 1910s and 20s was initiated by William Sealy Gosset, and reached its culmination in the insights of Ronald Fisher, who wrote the textbooks that were to define the academic discipline in universities around the world. Sampling theory is part of the mathematical discipline of probability theory. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution. The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management, selective breeding,[82] and controlled-environment agriculture. [199][196], Agricultural economics is economics as it relates to the "production, distribution and consumption of [agricultural] goods and services". The Genetics Society of America (154) 1419:1426, Andersson, M. and Simmons, L.W. Statistics in Medicine. The null hypothesis, H0, asserts that the defendant is innocent, whereas the alternative hypothesis, H1, asserts that the defendant is guilty. Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. The Haber-Bosch method allowed the synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on an industrial scale, greatly increasing crop yields and sustaining a further increase in global population. The two variables are said to be correlated; however, they may or may not be the cause of one another. Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrial meat production. [14] Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia,[15] where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago. Lappe, F. M.; Collins, J.; Rosset, P. (1998). [52][53] Wild foods including wild rice and maple sugar were harvested. Crop Production", pp. Statistics allow us to evaluate treatment differences and determine whether or not the differences that exist are . [100] The service sector overtook the agricultural sector as the largest global employer in 2007. John A. Schnittker has written: 'Application of input-output analysis to a regional model stressing agriculture' -- subject(s): Agriculture, Linear programming, Mathematical models, Statistics Measures might include paying for reforestation upstream of a city, to improve the supply of fresh water. The statistical significance of a trend in the data—which measures the extent to which a trend could be caused by random variation in the sample—may or may not agree with an intuitive sense of its significance. History of agriculture in Malawi Colonial period. A solution would be to give value to ecosystems, recognizing environmental and livelihood tradeoffs, and balancing the rights of a variety of users and interests. The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", and cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". In D. R. Harris (ed. The latter gives equal weight to small and big errors, while the former gives more weight to large errors. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. [50] The population being examined is described by a probability distribution that may have unknown parameters. Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization). "Practical Nutrient Management" pp. [149] A 2005 analysis of these costs in the US concluded that cropland imposes approximately $5 to $16 billion ($30 to $96 per hectare), while livestock production imposes $714 million. Business statistics applies statistical methods in econometrics, auditing and production and operations, including services improvement and marketing research. It found that agriculture and food consumption are two of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. A difference that is highly statistically significant can still be of no practical significance, but it is possible to properly formulate tests to account for this. [115] Some farmers use irrigation to supplement rainfall. Inference can extend to forecasting, prediction and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied; it can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial data, and can also include data mining.

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