abo blood group system
- December 6, 2020 -
ABO blood group: The major human blood group system. The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes. Group C blood is different in that it agglutinates with both A and B. Some individuals possess plasma IgA ABO antibodies irrespective of immunization; ABO antibodies of colostrum are often wholly IgA, although sometimes IgM antibodies can also be found. The prevention of ABO-incompatible transfusion is the most important objective of pretransfusion testing.  Several studies have observed that a relative down-regulation of GTA and GTB occurs in oral carcinomas in association with tumor development. Such IgM antibodies, although displaying optimal activity in the cold, are reactive at 37Â°C and can activate the complement cascade up to the C9 stage, leading to the immediate intravascular lysis of transfused incompatible red cells in vivo. In the UK, the distribution of blood type frequencies through the population still shows some correlation to the distribution of placenames and to the successive invasions and migrations including Norsemen, Danes, Saxons, Celts, and Normans who contributed the morphemes to the placenames and the genes to the population. Historically, ABO blood tests were used in paternity testing, but in 1957 only 50% of American men falsely accused were able to use them as evidence against paternity. (1978) found that the human erythrocyte glycoproteins contain polylactosamine chains that contains ABH substances attached and represent the majority of the antigens. from microbes in the gut and respiratory tract. 06. 03. , In April 2007, an international team of researchers announced in the journal Nature Biotechnology an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B, and AB blood into type O. Anti-B antibodies are hypothesized to originate from antibodies produced against Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, cross-reacting with the Î±-D-galactose on the B glycoprotein. The ABO blood group system is the first described of the human blood groups based upon carbohydrate alloantigens present on red cell membranes. , Some evolutionary biologists theorize that there are four main lineages of the ABO gene and that mutations creating type O have occurred at least three times in humans. This variant is found worldwide, and likely predates human migration from Africa. In the UK, roughly one in every three randomly selected, ungrouped blood donations would be incompatible with a given recipient; such incompatible transfusions can lead to renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and even death. ) This classification was adopted by the National Research Council and became variously known as the National Research Council classification, the International classification, and most popularly the "new" Landsteiner classification.  Felix Bernstein demonstrated the correct blood group inheritance pattern of multiple alleles at one locus in 1924. The ânaturally occurringâ antibodies of the majority of group A or B individuals are mainly IgM and produced in response to environmental ABO antigens, e.g. Anti-A antibodies are hypothesized to originate from immune response towards influenza virus, whose epitopes are similar enough to the Î±-D-N-galactosamine on the A glycoprotein to be able to elicit a cross-reaction. The terminal carbohydrate backbone on which A and B are synthesized is H antigen. They are completely resistant to P. vivax infection. Why? This serves as the basis for grouping humans into phenotypes designated A, B, AB, and O. ABO blood group system majorly classifies the blood into four types that is A, B, AB and O. Agglutination reaction determines the ABO blood type which characterizes by the clump formation in the blood. Northern Hybridization Results. ABO system: (ā′bē-ō′) n. A classification system for human blood that identifies four major blood types based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on red blood cells. The new system was gradually accepted and by the early 1950s, it was universally followed. ABO blood group system, the classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of red blood cells (erythrocytes) as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. However, in some parts of the world, ABO HDN is often more severe and this is attributed to environmental factors such as the stimulation of ABO antibodies by microbes and parasites. The ABO blood group is a major blood classification system used all over the world. Most sub-Saharan Africans are Duffy blood group negative because of homozygosity for a mutation in the promoter of this gene. ", "Blood group serology--the first four decades (1900â1939)", ABO blood groups, antibodies and antigens explained, EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica, ABO blood group system, International Society of Blood Transfusion, Transfusion associated circulatory overload, Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease, Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ABO_blood_group_system&oldid=987583025, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 00:15. 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URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122267656000013, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128137260000106, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128033128000021, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323221580000056, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455748013000102, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012198382650039X, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123971647000100, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128137260000258, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383000775, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128000373000108, Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics (Seventh Edition), 2020, Encyclopedia of Immunology (Second Edition), Transfusion Medicine and Hemostasis (Third Edition), Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease, Fred R.T. Nelson MD, FAAOS, Carolyn Taliaferro Blauvelt, in, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology (Eighth Edition), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY AND TRANSFUSION MEDICINE, Transfusion Medicine and Hemostasis (Second Edition), Lynsi Rahorst MHPE, MT(ASCP) SBB, Connie M. Westhoff PhD, SBB, in, Perinatal Alloantibody Disorders â Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia/Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn, Max M. Houck PhD, FRSC, Jay A. Siegel PhD, in, Fundamentals of Forensic Science (Third Edition), Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. A and B antigens are specific carbohydrate structures synthesized in a stepwise fashion by A and B glycosyltransferase enzymes. Most individuals are secretors, but about 20% of most populations are nonsecretors because of mutation in the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene.136 In relatively small studies, nonsecretion was suggested to be associated with susceptibility to some bacterial and fungal infections and with resistance to certain common viral infections.137,138 Nonsecretor status is clearly associated with susceptibility to recurrent urinary tract infection,139 and a possible mechanism for this has been proposed.140 Nonsecretor status was found to protect completely against infection with Norwalk virus in volunteer challenge studies141 and is associated with substantially reduced risk in the general population.142 More recent studies have reported symptomatic norovirus infection in nonsecretors, and in vitro binding studies have demonstrated that binding of noroviruses to HBGA is strain specific, with some norovirus strains evolving different HBGA-binding targets in an attempt to evade genetically determined host resistance.143 However, overall, apart from associations with norovirus and urinary tract infections, there is a need for larger studies to show compelling evidence of association. Anti-A or anti-B isoagglutinins (alloantibodies) are present only in the blood sera of individuals not possessing that specificity. The ability to secrete blood group substances (such as secretor histo-blood group antigens, HBGA) into saliva and at other mucosal surfaces is genetically determined. The cis-AB phenotype has a single enzyme that creates both A and B antigens.  In addition, vWF is degraded more rapidly due to the higher prevalence of blood group O with the Cys1584 variant of vWF (an amino acid polymorphism in VWF): the gene for ADAMTS13 (vWF-cleaving protease) maps to human chromosome 9 band q34.2, the same locus as ABO blood type. A and B antigens are specific carbohydrate structures synthesized in a stepwise fashion by A and B glycosyltransferase enzymes. = 128) between the ages of 5 and 10 years. They are I A, I B, and i. Discrepancies between the front and back type must be resolved prior to labeling a blood component (see Chapter 23). The ABO blood group system is the first described of the human blood groups based upon carbohydrate alloantigens present on red cell membranes. Copyright Â© 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. , Czech serologist Jan JanskÃ½ independently introduced blood type classification in 1907 in a local journal. human blood transfusion. Blood groups are inherited from both parents. The ABO blood type is controlled by a single gene (the ABO gene) with three types of alleles inferred from classical genetics: i, IA, and IB. The lack of severity of most cases of ABO HDN is thought to be due to: 1) IgG ABO antibodies being predominantly IgG2, which is incapable of initiating complement-mediated hemolysis or destruction of antibody-coated red cells by the mononuclear phagocytic system (many sera have IgG1 ABO antibodies as well as an IgG2 component; a few sera have trace amounts of IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies); 2) substantial amounts of maternal IgG ABO antibodies binding to ABO sites on tissues other than red cells in the fetus; 3) soluble ABH antigens in plasma and body fluids of the fetus which neutralize IgG anti-A and anti-B and inhibit their binding; 4) the ABO epitopes of fetal red cells being present on unbranched oligosaccharides, which are thought to be unable to support the divalent IgG binding needed for complement activation by IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies; 5) fetal complement levels being too low to support efficient lysis of cord (or even adult) target red cells. There are also variations in blood type distribution within human subpopulations. The ABO blood group system consists of the A, B, and H antigens. The occurrence of HDN due to ABO antibodies cannot be predicted, but it only affects the offspring of group O mothers.